Exam Tips CBSE- AISSCE 2017

प्रिय मित्रों
प्रगामी अर्क.काम आपको इस कालम के अन्तर्गत  सीबीएसई की AISSCE 2017 (कक्षा 12) के लिए विभिन्न विषयों की तैयारी हेतु एक्सक्लूसिव टिप्स लेकर आया है। यह टिप्स विषय विशेषज्ञों के द्वारा तैयार किए गए हैं। अपने आप में विश्वास रखें समय प्रबंधन के अनुसार सही दिशा में प्रयास करें। हमारी शुभ कामनाएं आपके साथ रहेंगी।

राजनीति शास्त्र
इस बात को जानते हुए और मानते हुए भी, कि आपके पास राजनीति विज्ञान
के पेपर को सॉल्व करने के लिए बेहतर टिप्स होंगे। मैं अपनी तरफ से कुछ छोटे-मोटे टिप्स
देना चाहता हूं:
1. सर्वप्रथम प्रश्न पत्र प्राप्त होते ही एक लम्बी गहरी साँस लें और मन में सोचे कि ये प्रश्न पत्र बहुत ही आसान है।
2. मेरे अनुसार आपको थोड़ा रफ वर्क करना होगा। रफ वर्क के लिए अंतिम पेज पर दो कॉलम बना लें, दोनों पुस्तकों के शीर्षक के अनुसार। अब इन दोनों कॉलम में उन अध्यायों के नाम लिखिए जो अत्यन्त सरल हैं जैसे- कॉल्ड वार इरा, यू.एस. हेजेमनी इन कंटेम्पररी वल्र्ड, अंतर्राष्टंीय संगठन, समकालीन विश्व में सुरक्षा, पर्यावरण और प्राकृतिक संसाधन और वैश्वीकरण। अब मात्र तीन अध्याय बचते हैं जिनको पढऩे के लिए अधिक समय की आवश्यकता होगी, जैसे दो धु्रवीयता का अंत, सत्ता के वैकल्पिक केन्द्र, समकालीन दक्षिण एशिया। ठीक इसी प्रकार आप दूसरी पुस्तक के अध्यायों को भी लिख लें।
3. अब एक एक प्रश्न पढि़ए और ये पता लगाने की कोशिश कीजिए कि वो प्रश्न कौन से अध्याय से पूछा गया है। अगर प्रश्न सीधा और सरल है तो वो आप से
तुरन्त ही हल हो जाएगा। अगर प्रश्न मूल्य आधारित है तो आपको प्रश्न पहले समझना होगा उसके बाद उत्तर दीजिए। अभी तक हम प्रश्न पत्र का ही विश्लेषण कर रहे हैं उत्तर लिखना अभी प्रारंभ नहीं किया।
4. यह बात स्पष्ट हो गई कि प्रश्न पत्र सरल व सीधे और मूल्य आधारित होते हैं।
5. लिखना प्रारंभ करने से पूर्व आप यह तय कर लें कि आप कौन से प्रश्न पहले हल करेंगे और कौन से बाद में। जाहिर सी बात है कि आप पहले आसान प्रश्नों
को लिखेंगे और फिर मूल्य परक। मैं यहां इतना ही बताना चाहूंगा कि आप हल 4 माक्र्स और 6 माक्र्स के प्रश्नों को हल करें। क्योंकि इन प्रश्नों की प्रकृति
तथ्यात्मक और विश्लेषणात्मक होती है। अत: आपको प्रश्न को पहले समझना होगा, उसके बाद उत्तर लिखिए।
6. चार और छह अंक के प्रश्नों के बाद आप दो तथा एक अंक वाले प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए। यहां आपको शब्द सीमा का अक्षरश: पालन करना चाहिए
क्योंकि आप उत्तर कितने भी अधिक शब्दों में लिख दीजिये अधिकतम माक्र्स आपको केवल दो या एक ही प्राप्त होगा। तो इन प्रश्नों पर ज्यादा लेखन मत
कीजिए। सामान्यत: एक और दो अंकों वाले प्रश्नों की प्रकृति तथ्यात्मक होती है। या तो आपको वह प्रश्न आता है या फिर नहीं आता। अत: यहां ज्यादा
समय लगाने की कतई आवश्यकता नहीं है।
7. अब बात आती है पैराग्राफ वाले प्रश्नों की आप इस बात से भली भांति परिचित होंगे कि ऐसे प्रश्न तीन आएंगे जो कि 5 म 3 त्र 15 माक्र्स के हैं। अत: इन
प्रश्नों के उत्तर देने से पहले उस पैराग्राफ को आप बवदजमगनंसपेमक करिए अर्थात् जानने की कोशिश करिए कि वो पैराग्राफ कौन से चैप्टर से आया है।
अब 2-3 मिनट के लिए आप उस चैप्टर के सारांश या समरी को याद करिए फिर दिए गए प्रश्नों के उत्तर अपने शब्दों में लिखिए। यहां आपको थोड़े बड़े
उत्तर लिखना चाहिये।
8. अब बचे दो प्रश्न जो कि कार्टून या इमेज आधारित और मानचित्र आधारित होंगे। सामान्यत: इनकी प्रकृति तथ्यात्मक होती है। अत: आप अध्ययन करते
समय ऐसे प्रश्नों की सूची बना लें, जो कि मैप या कार्टून आधारित हो।
9. ये तो प्रश्न पत्र के प्रारूप से संबंधित बातें हो गई। अब कुछ सामान्य बातें जो कि निम्नलिखित हैं:-
अ प्रश्न वही सबसे पहले हल करें जो आपको ज्ञात हो।
ब प्रश्न का क्रमांक सही लिखे।
स प्रत्येक अध्याय की समरी जरूर तैयार करें। उससे आपको प्रश्न समझने में दिक्कत नहीं होगी।
द अगर चाहे तो उत्तर की ेलदवचेपे बना लें। आप वो लिखिए जो आप अपने उत्तर में लिखने जा रहे हैं। उदाहरण के लिए
भारत के समक्ष स्वतंत्रता के समय कौन सी तीन चुनौतियां थी? तो आप सीधे 3 बिन्दू लिख दीजिये फिर उनकी व्याख्या कर दीजिये।
जैसे
1 विविधता में एकता
2 लोक तंत्र की स्थापना
3 सब वर्गो का कल्याण ताकि सामाजिक आर्थिक न्याय को स्थापित किया जा सके।
ड आपको माक्र्स प्राप्त करने के लिए चेकर को स्पेस देना होगा अर्थात आप बहुत कुछ लिखें लेकिन प्रासंगिकता को ध्यान में रखते हुए।
दूसरे शब्दों में आपको लिखना होगा तभी आपको माक्र्स मिलेंगे।
10. अगर कोई प्रश्न आपको पूरा नहीं आता तो जो समरी आपने तैयार कि है उसे तमसंजम करते हुए आप प्रश्न का उत्तर लिख दीजिये।
11. अंत में, पढाई करते वक्त सर्वप्रथम अध्याय के अनुसार समय-सीमा तय कर लें। मेरे हिसाब से एक अध्याय को 1 से 11⁄2 घण्टे में तैयार किया जा सकता है। सबसे पहले उस अध्याय के सब-टॉपिक्स देखिए फिर पेन और पेपर साथ में रखते हुए तथ्य को लिखते जाइये और फिर उन तथ्यों को 10 बार, 20 बार,
50 बार लिख कर प्रैक्टिस कीजिये। वो आपको ऐसे ही याद हो जाएगा।

Compiled by Amit Jain

 

Dear students,

In order to felcilitate your learning in chemistry pragamiark.com is publishing chapter wise synopsis for your last minute preparation.

Subject Chemistry


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compiled by Mrs Bhavana jaiswal

 

Subject- Mathematics

FOR DEAR STUDENTS

Hello friends! It is high time when you must be thinking to optimize output of your endeavours to crack AISSCE -2017 successfully.

Utilization of time with right strategy in right direction brings confidence and success as well. So here are some tips, apart from content knowledge,which may help you to handle mission AISSCE-2017 successfully.

Regarding preparation at home :

1 Be familiar with the pattern and structure of question paper. Also have knowledge of unit wise weightage of marks. Go through the sample papers uploaded by CBSE on its official website. This may help to understand the trend of question paper in coming board exams.

2: First prepare those scoring and easier topics with perfection which require less time to prepare and provide enough support to your preparation.

from this point of view matrices and determinant (13marks), vector and 3-dimentional geometry(17 marks) should be given preference while preparing. From these two units questions are asked under each section of question paper. Then focus on continuity and differentiability, inverse trigonometric functions,linear programming etc.

3: Some are the topics though are not easy but quite expected under

six marks category as, maxima minima, area under the curves, linear programming, solving system of equations using matrices etc.So have rigorous practice of questions based on these topics if complete unit is not possible to prepare at this juncture of time. If four or five six marks questions could be answered successfully it will be a great relief to further raise your score high.

4: After completing the syllabus start practicing through sample papers and previous years board exam questions instead of doing exercises from text book.

5: To prepare any topic or unit, first learn all the formulae and key points very well so that mistakes should not occur because of incorrect inputs.In examination hall:

1: Do not start question paper from section A; preferably begin with those four marks and six marks questions which are familiar to you and you are quite sure about those. If you could complete six four marks questions and two six marks questions within first 1 hour, for rest of the paper you will be quite comfortable and able to attempt some twisted questions also.

2: For better time management give yourself practice of completing section wise questions in stipulated time limit as, for section D of six marks questions have 1.15 hrs time frame, for section C of four marks questions have 1hr time frame, for section B of 2marks questions 20 min. and for 1 mark questions hardly 10 min. In examination you should have at least 15 min. spare in hand to review and check your answers.

3: Never devote much time in writing 1mark or 2 marks questions.

These are very short and short answer type questions which require hardly two to four steps to answer hence consuming much time here may tends to loss of more marks in next two categories if left unattempted or nswered incorrectly in hurry. So have tricks and shorter methods for such type of questions.

4: Never leave any question unattempted.Even if you are not getting how to do, write at least formula or some related steps. You may get advantage of step marking at the time of evaluation.

5: Never stuck up to any question for longer time, especially in integration and probability. If you are not getting correct answer in first attempt go for other questions without wasting much time on it.

6: Avoid overwriting and write legible in answer copy.

7: Above all have positive attitude and do not let anxiety, low spirit, nervousness dominate on your selfconfidence. So be optimistic with your sincere efforts you made to win the battle.

“SUCCESS IS THE SUM OF SMALL EFFORTS, REPEATED DAY IN AND DAY OUT”

Wishing you all the best for your mission.

श्रीमती रेणु श्रीवास्तव द्वारा संकलित

TIPS FOR HISTORY-XII

 

1-Read the question at least twice before answering.

2-Write correct question number before answering a question.

3- While writing an answer, focus on the nature of the question asked.

4-Follow word limit for questions as per their weightage.

5-Answer those questions first which you can explain in the best way.

6-Don’t dwell too much on a particular question as you may run short of time in attempting remaining

questions. If facing difficulty in answering a question, move on to other questions and return to former

later.

7-Don’t leave any question un-attempted except those where choice is given

8- Section B containing four marks questions and Section C containing eight marks questions have some

choice. Choose those questions that you can attempt in the best way.

9-All three text books have equal weightage (25 marks for each book)+ 05 marks for map from any

chapter, so it is better to give equal importance.

8- Don’t miss value based question-

Remember few values like-

Gender equality, truth, Nonviolence, Kindness, equal treatment for people of all

section,honesty,Patriotism,brotherhood,Cooperation,Faithfulness,Communal harmony, unity and

integrity etc.

9-For Source Based Questions-better to read questions first (given at the end of passage) and then read

Passage carefully. Generally answers are available in top to bottom manner with some exception.

(Answer of some questions asked in passage may not be directly available in passage, therefore it is

advisable to read all chapters from textbooks )

9-Refer latest CBSE sample question papers along with previous year’s Board exam paper.

10-Identify a limited number of direct questions and topics (chapter-wise) which usually come in the

exam and prepare them well.

11-Map Based Question-

Practice map based question as per the map list provided by CBSE in curriculum.

Some most important frequently asked places-Harappa Sites, Asoka’s Inscriptions ,Major Buddhist sites,

Important South Indian Kingdoms, Centers of revolt of 1857 and National movement .

 

compiled by D K Shrivastava

 

TIPS FOR SCORING GOOD MARKS IN BUSINESS  STUDIES

Cracking an examination is a skill that can be acquired. As with studying, scoring good marks too is a combination of managing one’s time well and applying the right method.

Here are some guidelines that one can follow while attempting to write an exam.

  • Answer the question as it is asked.

Read the question at least twice before answering. Also make sure to tackle all sub-sections of a question.

  • Use the marks as a guide

The examination paper mentions the marks each question carry. Use these mark as a rough

guide as to how long their answers ought to be. Do not expand an answer more than is

relevant. This will save a lot of time which can be used while writing a Long-Answer

question.

  • Avoid writing irrelevant points
  • While writing an answer, focus on the nature of the question asked.
  • Answering something that is irrelevant to the question, no matter how good a description it

is, will not only waste time but also be given low marks.

  • Budget your time

Don’t dwell too much on a particular question as you may run short of time in attempting remaining questions. Even  if you beautifully explain an answer in detail ,one can only score the maximum marks allocated to that question. If facing difficulty in answering a question, move on to other questions and return to the former later.

Answer in points

In B.Studies,until and unless asked otherwise, you should always answer the question in points with heading and explanation.The marking scheme gives half mark for heading and

half for its dscription.

  • Check and double-check

Always keep some time for revision while budgeting time. In the rush to complete the paper, some basic spelling mistakes or forgotten, half-attempted questions may spoil all the

effort.

Utilizing first fifteen minutes time

You should utilize the first fifteen minutes judiciously to go through the complete paper to

plan your strategy instead of going for a few questions in deep.

Bottom to Top

In order to crack the application based questions apply this approach of bottom to top.

First study what has been asked in the question.Then start reading the situation given.This will help you in focusing on the concerned topic or chapter instead of wandering through all the twelve chapters.

Read the question carefully

 

To avoid the premature evaluation of question read carefully what has been asked.Is it

 

 

function or functions,concept,limitation ,etc.Be attentive of the letter “s “.This will help

 

you in finding  one or more functions,values or concepts.

 

Don’t miss value based question

 

Never miss the values in a hurry  to attempt the main answer.

 

Answer it in complete sentence taking help of the lines given in the question.

 

Remember few values like-

 

Social responsibility, concern for society ,Patriotism ,kindness ,honesty ,tolerance

 

,empathy,harmony,co-operation,faithfulness,loyality,women

 

empowerement,initiative,etc.

 

Do not leave out any Question.

 

 Answer those questions first, which you know very well.

 

 While trying to understand ‘HOTS’ questions keep in mind chapter-wise

 

allotment of marks for each chapter. Sometimes this helps to guess the chapter

 

from which the hots question is given.

 

 Especially in case of Application Oriented Questions (HOTS), read Hindi medium

 

version also, it may give you some clue. It also removes the vagueness in the

 

English language.

 

 Refer latest CBSE sample question papers along with previous year’s Board exam paper

 

 

 Maintain a separate small hand – book to write only sub-headings for all the

 

concepts in the subject. It helps as a ready- reckoner.

 

 Read summaries given at the end of each chapter to get a comprehensive idea about

 

the given chapter. Hots can be given from summaries also.

 

 Refer ‘High scoring students’ answer sheets available in the CBSE web site.

 

 Believe in yourself. Set a goal for yourself.

 

 Accordingly set a timetable for yourself.

 

 Identify a limited number of direct questions which usually come in the exams &

 

prepare them well.

 

 Apply FRT (Fast reading technique) i.e. to revise more in less time.

 

Presentation: Be particular about how you write the answers. It should always be in

 

points with a heading and a brief explanation.

 

Also be careful not to spend too much time on 1 question at the cost of other

 

questions.

 

 Wherever any process is asked to be explained, write all the steps involved,

 

irrespective  of the marks allotted to that question.

 

Underline all the sub-headings.

 

Attempt ‘HOTS’ questions at the last.

 

Utilize the QP paper reading time to plan writing strategies instead of trying to write

 

answers in advance.

compiled by-Mrs.Anubha Soni   

best of luck 

 

Subject-English

Exclusive Tips For Scoring Good Marks in English Core

1.Attempt all the questions.

2.Manage your time so that you can complete the paper 10 minutes before.

 3. Stick to the word limit.

4. Start with the section you are confident with.

 

SECTION-A.

READING COMPREHENSION

STRATEGIES FOR ATTEMPTING COMPREHENSION

1– Read the title.

2– Quickly skim through the questions. This will help you to predict what the passage/ poem

is about. It will help you to read and understand its contents with more clarity and will

keep your mind focused on its theme.

3– Focus on the questions that test vocabulary skills. Read the antonym/synonym given. Look

at the numbers of the paragraphs. Write each word against its respective paragraph. This

gives you a ready reference and helps you to identify the word in the passage / para while

reading.

4– While reading do the following:

  1. a. Underline the content words
  2. b. Underline the possible answers of the given questions. It will help you to identify the

answers faster.

  1. c. Encircle the words that are answers for the vocabulary. Normally a noun for noun, a

verb for a verb and an adverb for an adverb etc.

5– Answer the questions –

  1. a. The underlined content will help you to find the answer.
  2. b. If confused between two words:
  3. Choose the word of the same part of speech / form
  4. Read the sentence with the word in the question in place of the ones you are choosing

from the passage.

6Additional tips:

  1. a. Write clearly and neatly.
  2. b. Keep in mind the marks allotted to each question.
  3. c. Do not leave any question unanswered

NOTE – MAKING

STRATEGIES FOR ATTEMPTING NOTE MAKING1. Read the passage thoroughly.

  1. . Find the title/Heading of the passage (Read the first/last paragraph for the title).
  2. . Underline the main points &supporting details.
  3.  Find out the chief division of the passage &use them for Main-headings..
  4. Find the sub-headings &write them under the Main-headings.
  5.  Circle the longer words or those often repeated words & abbreviate them.
  6.  Organise the information systematically.

*NOTE:

  1. Do not write in complete sentences; use words/phrases only.
  2.  Underline the HEADING&SUB-HEADING.
  3.  How to form Abbreviations:

(a) Capitalized Initial Letters: eg: W.H .O, L.I.C

(b) The first few letters & the last few letters of the word:eg:

Advertisement-advt., government-govt.

(c) Taking first &last letters of the words: -eg. Reading-rdng. Education-edn

(d)Contractions of word-:eg:will not -won’t; do not -don’t

  1. Universally recognized SYMBOLS used-eg: viz.-namely; eg.-for example
  2. . Make a box for writing the abbreviations.(Use atleast-4 abbreviations.)
  3.  Put the complete word& its abbreviation in the box.

SUMMARISING

  1. Use the NOTES made to draft the summary.
  2. Join the points & make them into complete sentences.
  3.  Write short sentences.
  4.  Join the sentences using words like-and;not only; but also;such that;more over
  5.  Follow the word limit. (80 words.)

Marking Scheme:

Distribution of Marks

Note making

Title 1 Mark

Content (minimum 3 headings and sub-headings, with proper indentation and notes) 3 marks

Abbreviation/Symbols (with key) – any four 1 mark

Summary

The summary should include all the important points given in the notes.

Content 2 marks

Expression 1 mark

sentences are used. They are logically and cohesively linked together with the help of suitable

linkers. Do not use abbreviations and symbols.

SECTION-B (ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS)

NOTICE – WRITING (4 MARKS)

 

INTRODUCTIONNotices-where used: schools, organisations, government boards.

-why used- to inform people about various events, issue, &public instructions.

Important points to be followed:

*Use the word “NOTICE” followed by the name of the organization/institute.

*Write the date on the left hand side.(eg.18th July 2016)

*Give a suitable heading to the notice.

*Content should contain the following-event, date, place, time)

*Conclude the notice with name (signature),&post(designation)

*Write it in a box

*Follow 50 words -limit.

: MARKING SCHEME

*Format-must include the word “NOTICE,”Date, Heading,Writer’sname,&post- (1Mark)

*Content-answers the question “What”,”When”, “Where”& “How”etc.-(2Marks)

*Expression-relates to the overall organization &relevance of the content besides grammatical

accuracy & fluency.(1Mark)

 

POSTER – MAKING

A poster is used to spread awareness regarding a social issue, an event or a product.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER:

  1. Give a heading.
  2. Write a catchy line/slogan.
  3. Remember to illustrate your poster with a sketch.
  4. There is no fixed lay out.
  5. Use convincing language.
  6. Follow the word limit.(50 words)

CONTENT: should convey the message clearly.

  1. For awareness of a Social Problem:

* heading

* the problem& its causes.

* effects of the problem.

* solutions to the problem.

* any other additional information.

  1. For an Event:

*name of event

*purpose

*date , time, venue

*organiser’s name

*entry ticket

*highlights of the event

*any other relevant information

MARKING SCHEME

FORMAT: 1Mark

CONTENT:2Marks

EXPRESSION:1 Mark

ADVERTISEMENT

TYPES OF ADVERTISEMENT

Classified Display/General

Main Characteristics of Classified Advertisements:

  1. They are categorised into columns according to different classes. The category is stated at

the top.

  1. They are written in short catchy phrases and words.
  2. The language used is simple, factual and formal.
  3. They are short, concise and to the point.
  4. All the relevant information is provided.
  5. Contact name and address is given.
  6. They are written in a box to attract attention.

Marking Scheme

Format – 1 Mark

Content expression – 2 Marks

Expression – 1 Mark

DISPLAY/GENERAL ADERTISEMENTS

Main Characteristics of Commercial Advertisements:

  1. Designed for display purpose.
  2. More space, more expensive in terms of the advertising costs.
  3. Visually attractive- varying font size or shape.
  4. Language colourful and lucid,catchy slogans, punch lines, witty expressions and pictures

or sketches.

Necessary Details:

  1. Name of the company/ institute/ organisers, etc.
  2. Details regarding the product/ event/ educational course etc.
  3. Special offers of discount, if any
  4. Address of the company/ institute/organisers, etc

FORMAL INVITATIONS AND REPLIES

Invitations are extended to relatives, friends, acquaintances and clients on a number of social

occasions like marriages, births, engagements, deaths or other public functions.

Invitations are of two types. – 1) Formal Invitations 2) Informal Invitation

While formal invitations are sent for the above mentioned occasions, many people also send a

handwritten informal invitation beforehand to make these occasions more personal, cordial and

intimate as is appropriate to their relationship.

Replying to invitations is essential. It is an essential courtesy to the host who has extended an

invitation and also helps the host know how many guests will arrive so that he she may make

arrangements accordingly.

Like the invitations, replies to invitations also may be:-

  • formal replies
  • Informal replies

Formal Invitations:-

Formal invitations are sent in offical capacity for public functions except in the case of Marriage/

Anniversaries.

  • A simple yet elegant printed card is preferred.
  • Invitations are written in the third person.

Example:- Mrs. and Mr .S Surendran request the pleasure ofyour company /Mr. and Mrs.

Rajkumar…………

 

  • Avoid use of abbreviations for the names of guests, days, dates. However, the abbreviations

RSVP. (Respondez s’il vous plait) which means ‘Please Reply’ is put at the bottom.

  • The subject matter is written in the centre setting. Details like address, dress code or any

other instructions are written at the bottom to the left or the right as per choice or

convenience.

Important Points

The invitation is laid out so that each of the following is in a separate line:

  • the name(s) of the host (s) issuing the invitation
  • the standard expression ‘request the pleasure of the company of ………….’
  • the reason for the invitation.
  • the time and date of the event.
  • the venue of event
  • In case a VIP is to be invited (at an official function), his/her name appears prominently
  • In case of Printed cards, the name of the invitee may not figure in the invitation.
  • The date of issuing the invitation is not mentioned.
  • No punctuation is required at the end of a line.
  • The simple present tense is used.

FORMAT OF FORMAL INVITATIONS

Host Line

Invite Line

Event Line

DATE

TIME

VENUE

Name of the

Chief Guest

with

Designation

His Consent

Accepting the Invitation (Formal)

Format (Formal Reply)

 

Sender’s address/

letter head

Date

……………………

……………………

……………………

……………………

……………………………………………………………………………………….

Content

Reply to Informal Invitations : –

It is an essential courtesy to reply to an invitation. The layout of a reply to an informal invitation

is also informal, like the invitation.

The reply is written in the first person. The salient points in the reply to an informal invitation

are:-

  • acknowledging the invitation
  • mention acceptance/ refusal (It is essential to give a reason for refusing an invitation.)
  • making use of warm and simple language.

LETTER WRITING

FORMAL LETTERS

Formal Letters have a variety of purposes. Formal Letters are written to:

  • Ask for/give information
  • Apply for a job
  • Make inquiries
  • Register complaints about inadequate goods or services
  • Place orders/send appropriate replies
  • Apologize for behaviour
  • Solicit new customers for grievances
  • Persuade others
  • Make an appeal for help
  • Send a recommendation

However, all of these letters have a common goal, which is to get the results you want from

someone you may or may not know personally.

IMPORTANT POINTS

  • The formal letter is written in formal language. Try to avoid starting with ‘I’. Keep sentence

short and to the point. Do not use contractions.

  • End with a short sentence that anticipates the response of the addressee.
  • The tone in formal letter is polite and impersonal.
  • Use passive voice where possible.
  • Be brief and to the point; do not beat about the bush.
  • Be clear and specific; state the purpose clearly and concisely.
  • Be positive and polite even if you are writing a complaint. Remember on the receiving

end of your letter is a human being!

Business letters

These include:

(i) Letters of enquiry/asking for information

(ii) Replying to enquiry/giving information

(iii) Placing orders and sending replies

(iv) Cancelling orders

A business letter is the basic means of communication between two companies. It is a document

typically sent externally to those outside a company, but is also sent internally to those within a

company.

A business letter should be written whenever you need a permanent record that you have sent

the information requested for, because business letters are generally sent to other professionals.

A formal salutation and closing must be added.

 

They are different from personal letters in form, tone and content. Most business letters have a

formal tone as opposed to the informal, friendly or personal tone, content and style of the personal

letter. The treatment of the subject has to be simple, systematic and formal.

IMPORTANT POINTS

  • begin by identifying yourself
  • clearly state the purpose of writing
  • give relevant details
  • make a request for appropriate action
  • be positive and polite – even if you are making a complaint
  • use polite language and a pleasant tone
  • Quote reference numbers, order number, cheque/demand draft number, file numbers, etc.
  • convey message briefly and in a straightforward manner

Official Letters

These include:

  1. Letters of complaint
  2. Making inquiries

iii. Making requests/appeals

Official letters are written to various public or civil servants who generally head their respective

departments, sections, branches or zones.

Important points

  • Show due respect but do not flatter or sound too servile
  • Clearly state the purpose of writing
  • Use polite language and a pleasant tone

Letters to the Editors

These letters give suggestions/create awareness on an issue of public interest or an issue already

raised in an article/write-up/published letter.

Important Points

  • Begin with reference to the recent development/event/issue
  • Give details of the topic bringing out cause-effect relationship
  • Offer suggestions/solutions

 

  • Do not ask the editor to solve the problem as he can only voice your views and ideas.

Job Applications

These types of letters demand a very formal and precise treatment. Their format is almost the

same as that of the forwarding cover letter and is usually accompanied by a curriculum vitae/

resume. The curriculum vitae/resume ought to include the name, address, name, date of birth,

educational qualifications, experience, hobbies, expected salary and Reference .

ARTICLE WRITING

Articles and speeches express the personal opinion of the writer and present information

on a variety of themes.

FORMAT:

  1. Write the HEADING/TITLE at the top.
  2. Write the name of the writer below it.
  3. Split your subject matter into 3-4 paragraphs.

(i) Paragraph-1: Introduction-briefly tell what the Article is about, giving some startling fact

or quotation to arouse interest.

(ii) Paragraph-2&3: Develop the cause and effect of the problem. Give statistical data to support

your views. Compare and contrast.

(iii) Paragraph-4 : Conclusion.Briefly offer suggestions and solutions to improve the situation.

Predictions and personal observation may be included.

  1. Systematic presentation of ideas is a must.
  2. Pay attention to grammatical accuracy and use of good vocabulary.
  3. Use sentence linkers to ensure continuity-eg .consequently, similarly, finally, moreover, etc.
  4. Avoid irrelevant information and repetition.
  5. Follow word limit (150-200 words)

Marking scheme

 

FORMAT: (title &writer’s name) 1mark

CONTENT: (4MARKS)

EXPRESSION: (5marks)

Grammatical accuracy, appropriate words and spellings (2 1/2marks)

Coherence and relevance of ideas and style (2 1/2marks)

DEBATE/SPEECH

DEBATE

The purpose of making a debate/ speech is to convey information orally to a large gathering

of people strongly and convincingly.

FORMAT Includes the topic (For/Against) SALUTATION, greeting the chief guest and fellow

speakers or listeners.

-Begin with “Honourable Chairperson, judges, teachers and my dear friends, I stand before you

to express my views for/against the motion on the topic…….”

CONTENT: Express your views about the topic .

-Compare, contrast and sum up highlighting your viewpoint.

-use LANGUAGE that is persuasive and powerful using the expressions like-I vehemently

disapprove of, I strongly feel, in my opinion, may I ask…..etc.

SPEECH: must reflect CLARITY of thought, accuracy of facts and balanced view.

At the end write “THANK YOU”.

Follow the word limit

.MARKING SCHEME

 FORMAT: (title &writer’s name) 1mark

CONTENT: (4MARKS)

EXPRESSION: (5marks)

Grammatical accuracy, appropriate words and spellings (2 1/2marks)

Coherence and relevance of ideas and style (2 1/2marks

Report Writing

A report can be a brief note or a complete detailed information about an event that has taken

place in the past.

Types of Reports

– For News Paper

– For Magazine

POINTS to Remember

– Be brief and to the point.

– Report an event in the order in which things happend.

– Should be always written in Past Tense (Magazine) and a mixture of tenses (for News Paper).

Format for Magazine

Heading   by

Content Split into 3-4 paragraph.

1st Para :-What/Where/When/for Whom, who is invited.

2nd Para :- Sequence of the event to be described.

3rd Para : – Quote excerpts from Chief Guests Speech and Conclusion.

FORMAT FOR NEWS PAPER

HEADLINE

BY _________________

Date : ______________________

Place : _____________________

1st Para :-Expansion of the headline.

2nd Para :- Detailed description of the event/ happening.

3rd Para : – Remakrs of the witness/people present at the event.

MARKING SCHEME

FORMAT: (title &writer’s name) 1mark

CONTENT: (4MARKS)

EXPRESSION: (5marks)

Grammatical accuracy, appropriate words and spellings (2 1/2marks)

Coherence and relevance of ideas and style (2 1/2marks

TEXUAL QUESTIONS

Extracts from poems and questions based on it (4marks)

Short Answer type questions from flamingo and Vistas. (3×4=12 marks)

In short answers do use the key words. For e.g. Why didn’t Franz want to go to school that day. The answer should include key words such as fine weather, didn’t do his homework, late for school

Distribution of marks:

Content: 2 marks.

Expression: 1 mark (deduct ½ a mark for two or more grammatical/spelling mistakes.)

Long Answer questions from Flamingo and Vistas (6 marks) based on theme incidents and characters and extrapolation.

MARKING SCHEME

Content -4 marks

Expression -2marks

LONG READING TEXT

THE INVISIBLE MAN – H G WELLS

Major Characters

Griffin

Dr. Kemp

Thomas Marvel

Minor Characters

  1. The Halls

.

  1. Teddy Henfrey
  2. Fearenside
  3. Cuss
  4. Mr. And Mrs. Bunting

Other people in the town who appear briefly in the story but have no particular

characterization:

  1. Huxter; Wadgers

The blacksmith

  1. Jaffers

The village constable

  1. The mariner; Colonel Adye

Questionare Based on the Plot/Theme/Event

Note:- Marks distribution

Content -3

Expression 3

Question based on character sketch

Note:- Marks distribution

Content 3

Expression 3

Questions on plot

Some examples

  1. Arrival of Griffin at Coach and Horses
  2. Luggage brought by Fearenside
  3. Burglary at Buntings
  4. Interview with Dr.Cuss
  5. Ruckus at Coach and Horses
  6. Meeting with Marvel
  7. Jolly cricketers
  8. Meeting with Kemp
  9. Recollections
  10. Kemp’s endeavour to trap Griffin
  11. Griffin’s death

 

Suggested distribution of time

Reading section -50 minutes

Writing section

Short composition- 10 minutes

Letter -10 minutes

Report/ Article -15 minutes

Debate /Speech -15 minutes

Short questions on poem 5 minutes

Short questions from vistas and Flamingo -15 minutes

Long answer type question from Flamingo -10 minutes

Long answer type question from Vistas -10 minutes

Two questions from Novel 10 +10 =20 minutes.

Rest 20 minutes for recapitulation.

 

Compiled by –Mrs.Madhuri  Rajguru Sanjeev

                              Mrs.Molly Paul

                                           

                                 

                                                      All  the Best

Subject- physics

Here are some last minute tips, tricks and points to remember before appearing for the exam

 

 

Subject- physics

Physics tips for preparation:

 Study all derivations, definitions, diagrams and memorise formulae and units of physical quantities

 Prepare a variety of conceptual questions based on application of laws/principles and solve related numericals

 Practice makes a man perfect. Solve the last five years' board papers under exam conditions, sticking to the time limit of three hours, which makes you familiar with the paper pattern and makes you confident

 Devote some time for meditation and exercise to increase your concentration power Just before the exam:

 Get up early in the morning and take a quick review of all the formulae and the steps of derivations

 Close your books an hour before the exam

 Feel relaxed and confident

During the exam:

Admit card: First and foremost, do not forget to carry the admit card. Without it, you won& #39;t be allowed to appear for the exam.

Read carefully: Before the commencement of the exam, a reading time of 15 minutes will be provided, during which, one should read the question paper carefully and check out the marks assigned to each question.

Make proper choices: There is an internal choice in one question of 2 marks, one question of 3 marks, and three questions of 5 marks. In the first 15 minutes of reading time, properly choose and mark you would want to attempt in order to avoid confusion later.

Answering tips: Definitions should be to the point; derivations should contain a sentence or two of introduction, a diagram (if any), clear mathematical steps with highlighted final result; graphical questions and conceptual problems should be supported with correct reasoning. Numerical problems must be solved in logical systematic manner.

Sequence: Follow the proper sequence if the question demands you to write about the process or steps.

Examples: Try to give examples wherever possible.

Time management: Be careful not to spend too much time on one particular question at the cost of other questions. Questions asking to 'distinguish' or 'differentiate' should be

written in a table form.

Diagrams: Give diagrammatic representation of answers wherever necessary.

Repeated answers: If a candidate attempts a question twice, marks will be given in the question attempted first and the question attempted later will be ignored.

Here are some important instructions that will students to prepare well for the examination:

 All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all

 This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E

 Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks, and Section E contains three questions of five marks each

 There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such questions

(Compiled by Shri Pramod Kumar Shrivastava)